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FIPS 200 specifies the minimum security requirements for non-military federal information systems. It implements the authority given to NIST (US National Institute of Science and Technology) by the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2014.
The FISMA law mandated the created of federal standards for: (i) the security categorization of federal information and information systems based their risk levels in order to provide the appropriate level of security for each system; and (ii) the minimum security requirements for each such category.
FIPS 200 addresses the specification of minimum security requirements for federal information and information systems. FIPS 199 addresses the classification divides systems. It divides the systems into high, moderate, and low impact systems based on their impact on individuals and organizations.
The Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are standards published by NIST for use by the United States federal government and government contractors in relation to computer systems. Generally compliance with the FIPS standards is mandatory, but waivers are sometimes available.
FedRAMP is a government-wide program that builds on the FIPS requirements to provide a standardized approach to security assessment, authorization, and continuous monitoring for cloud products and services. The objective is to save government costs by implementing once, and then reusing the implementation and security assessments in many government agencies.
FIPS 200 generally applies to all Federal Government information and information systems, except national security systems and certain classified information.
FIPS 200 itself is very brief. It basically says that there are 17 security-related areas where federal agencies must meet certain minimum requirements. For the actual requirements, it refers to NIST Special Publication 800-53 and says that federal agencies must meet its requirements.
The seventeen areas are:
Awareness and Training
Audit and Accountability
Certification, Accreditation, and Security Assessments
Identification and Authentication
Physical and Environmental Protection
System and Services Acquisition
System and Communications Protection
System and Information Integrity