Pluggable Authentication Module is an authentication framework used in Unix systems. In SSH Tectia, support for PAM is enabled as a submethod of keyboard-interactive authentication.
When PAM is used, SSH Tectia Server transfers the control of authentication to the PAM library, which will then load the modules specified in the PAM configuration file. Finally, the PAM library tells SSH Tectia Server whether or not the authentication was successful. SSH Tectia Server is not aware of the details of the actual authentication method employed by PAM, only the final result is of interest.
The PAM authentication can be enabled by creating a PAM configuration
for the service
ssh-server-g3. For information on how to do
PAM session and account management irrespective of the authentication
methods used, see the configuration element description for
In addition, you can define separate authentication blocks with
specific PAM settings (in element
which will override the PAM defaults for that particular authentication
It is possible to configure the user session management and the
authentication to use different services for PAM authentication. This is
done by defining different services in the
attribute in the
and in the
SSH Tectia Server expects to find the PAM libraries in the default paths of the supported operating systems. You need to define the PAM libraries in the server configuration only if they are used from non-default locations.
The following configuration example shows the PAM authentication
related settings in the
<authentication-methods> <authentication action="allow"> <auth-keyboard-interactive> <submethod-pam service-name="sshd2" dll-path="
path-to-pam-dll" /> </auth-keyboard-interactive> ... </authentication> </authentication-methods>
SSH Communications Security does not provide technical support on how to configure PAM. Our support only covers SSH Tectia applications.
The following are examples of the PAM configurations on different platforms.
Please note that these are just examples and need to be modified according to the actual server configuration.
On Red Hat Linux 5, add PAM configuration file
/etc/pam.d/ssh-server-g3 with contents:
auth include system-auth account required pam_nologin.so account include system-auth password include system-auth session optional pam_keyinit.so force revoke session include system-auth session required pam_loginuid.so
When the PAM library is used from the default path, the PAM definitions
in the SSH Tectia Server configuration file
ssh-server-config.xml can be
simply as follows:
<authentication-methods> <authentication action="allow"> <auth-keyboard-interactive > <submethod-pam /> </auth-keyboard-interactive > ... </authentication> </authentication-methods>
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 (both 32- and 64-bit versions) the
default configuration settings are suitable for most PAM authentications.
You can add file
/etc/pam.d/ssh-server-g3 with contents:
auth include common-auth auth required pam_nologin.so account include common-account password include common-password session include common-session
The following example configuration in
ssh-server-config.xml enables PAM session and account
management with the service
sshd2 (instead of the default
ssh-server-g3). The authentication submethod PAM is
configured to use service
ssh-server-g3. The PAM library is
used from the default path.
<params> <pluggable-authentication-modules service-name="sshd2" pam-calls-with-commands="yes" /> </params> <!-- ... --> <authentication-methods> <authentication action="allow" name="allow-default"> <auth-keyboard-interactive> <submethod-pam service-name="ssh-server-g3"/> </auth-keyboard-interactive> </authentication> </authentication-methods>
On Solaris version 10, add the
/etc/pam.conf entry with contents:
ssh-server-g3 auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1 ssh-server-g3 auth required pam_dhkeys.so.1 ssh-server-g3 auth required pam_unix_cred.so.1 ssh-server-g3 auth required pam_unix_auth.so.1 ssh-server-g3 account requisite pam_roles.so.1 ssh-server-g3 account required pam_unix_account.so.1 ssh-server-g3 session required pam_unix_session.so.1 ssh-server-g3 password required pam_dhkeys.so.1 ssh-server-g3 password requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1 ssh-server-g3 password requisite pam_authtok_check.so.1 ssh-server-g3 password required pam_authtok_store.so.1
If the PAM library is used from a path different than the operating
system default, the path must be specified in the SSH Tectia Server configuration file
ssh-server-config.xml both in the
pluggable-authentication-modules and in the
submethod-pam element with the
attribute. For example:
<params> <pluggable-authentication-modules dll-path="
path-to-pam-dll" pam-calls-with-commands="yes" /> </params> <authentication-methods> <authentication action="allow" name="allow-default"> <auth-keyboard-interactive> <submethod-pam dll-path="
path-to-pam-dll" /> </auth-keyboard-interactive> </authentication> </authentication-methods>
On Solaris, the account lockout setting LOCK_AFTER_RETRIES in
The following is an example on how to configure PAM to use LDAP authentication on a Red Hat Linux machine. Before trying this setup, verify that PAM works for local accounts. Modify the example settings according to your LDAP server configuration.
/etc/pam.d/ssh-server-g3, add the following settings:
auth required /lib/security/pam_ldap.so account required /lib/security/pam_ldap.so password required /lib/security/pam_ldap.so session required /lib/security/pam_ldap.so
/etc/nsswitch.conf, add the following settings:
passwd: files ldap shadow: files ldap group: files ldap
/etc/ldap.conf, add the following settings:
host ldapserver.company.com base dc=company,dc=com ldap_version 3 port 389 scope one pam_min_uid 10000 pam_max_uid 20000 nss_base_passwd ou=accounts,dc=company,dc=com?one nss_base_shadow ou=accounts,dc=company,dc=com?one nss_base_group ou=groups,dc=company,dc=com?one ssl no pam_password md5