SSH

ssh-broker-config

ssh-broker-config — Tectia Connection Broker configuration file format

The Connection Broker configuration file ssh-broker-config.xml is used by Tectia Client and ConnectSecure on Unix and Windows. The Connection Broker configuration file must be a valid XML file that follows the ssh-broker-ng-config-1.dtd document type definition.

Connection Broker Files

The Connection Broker reads three configuration files (if all are available):

  1. The ssh-broker-config-default.xml file is read first. It holds the factory default settings. It is not recommended to edit the file, but you can use it to view the default settings.

    This file must be available and correctly formatted for the Connection Broker to start.

  2. Next, the Connection Broker reads the global configuration file. The settings in the global configuration file override the default settings.

    If the global configuration file is missing or malformed, the Connection Broker will start normally, and will read the user-specific configuration file, instead. A malformed global configuration file is ignored and the default settings or user-specific settings, if they exist, are used instead.

  3. Last, the Connection Broker reads the user-specific configuration file, if it is available. The settings in the user-specific configuration file override the settings in the global configuration file, with the following exceptions:

    • The following settings from the user-specific configuration are combined with the settings of the global configuration file:

      • In general element, the key-stores, cert-validation and file-access-control settings

      • In profiles element, all settings

      • In static-tunnels element, all settings.

    • If a connection profile with the same name has been defined in both the global configuration file and user-specific configuration file, the latter one is used.

    • If the filter-engine settings have been defined in the global configuration file, and the file is valid (not malformed), those settings are used, and any filter-engine settings made in the user-specific configuration file are ignored.

    If the user-specific configuration file is missing, the Connection Broker will start using the previously read configuration files. However, if a user-specific configuration exists but is malformed, the Connection Broker will not start at all.

On Unix, the default configuration file locations are as follows:

  • the default configuration:

    /opt/tectia/share/auxdata/ssh-broker-ng/ssh-broker-config-default.xml

  • the global configuration: /etc/ssh2/ssh-broker-config.xml

  • the user-specific configuration: $HOME/.ssh2/ssh-broker-config.xml

  • the XML DTD:

    /opt/tectia/share/auxdata/ssh-broker-ng/ssh-broker-ng-config-1.dtd

[Note]Note

In Tectia Client 6.1 and earlier on Unix the default auxiliary data directory auxdata was located in /etc/ssh2/ssh-tectia/. If your ssh-broker-config.xml file was created for Tectia Client version 6.1 or earlier, please update its DOCTYPE declaration to contain the current path to the Connection Broker configuration file DTD directory: /opt/tectia/share/auxdata/ssh-broker-ng/.

On Windows, the default configuration file locations are as follows (where <INSTALLDIR> indicates the default Tectia installation directory on Windows, see Directory Paths):

  • Default configuration: "<INSTALLDIR>\SSH Tectia AUX\ssh-broker-ng\ssh-broker-config-default.xml"

  • Global configuration: "<INSTALLDIR>\SSH Tectia Broker\ssh-broker-config.xml"

  • User-specific configuration: "%APPDATA%\SSH\ssh-broker-config.xml"

  • XML DTD: "<INSTALLDIR>\SSH Tectia AUX\ssh-broker-ng\ssh-broker-ng-config-1.dtd"

The following sections describe the options available in the Connection Broker configuration file. For more information on the syntax of the configuration file, see Broker Configuration File Syntax.

Environment Variables

Two kinds of environment variables can be used in the Connection Broker configuration file. In addition to the system-level environment variables, you can use special variables that are Tectia specific. The environment variables take precedence over the special variables. So if an environment variable and a special variable have the same name, the environment variable will be used.

All alphanumeric characters and the underscore '_' sign are allowed in environment variables. The variable name ends to the first character that is not allowed.

You can define for example file or directory paths with environment variables, and they will be expanded to their values as explained below.

%VARIABLENAME%

Replaced with the value of the environment variable if one has been defined. The variable is matched case-insensitively. If the variable is not defined, the string '%VARIABLENAME%' is the result.

$VARIABLENAME

Replaced with the value of the environment variable if one has been defined. The variable is matched case-sensitively on Unix and case-insensitively on Windows. If the variable is not defined, it is replaced with an empty string.

${VARIABLENAME}text

Replaced with the value defined for '$VARIABLENAME' with the 'text' appended to it.

${VARIABLENAME:-default_value}

Replaced with the value defined for '$VARIABLENAME', or replaced with the 'default_value' if the variable is not set.

The Tectia specific special variables are:

%U or %username%

Replaced with the currently logged in user name.

%username-without-domain%

Replaced with the currently logged in user name in short format, i.e. without the domain part. Available on Windows.

%G or %groupname%

Replaced with the group name of the currently logged in user.

%D or %homedir%

Replaced with the home directory defined for the currently logged in user.

%IU or %userid%

Replaced with the user identifier defined for the currently logged in user.

%IG or %groupid%

Replaced with the group identifier defined for the currently logged in user.

The special variables can also be entered using the Unix format, for example, $username.

Document Type Declaration and the Root Element

The Connection Broker configuration file is a valid XML file and starts with the Document Type Declaration.

The root element in the configuration file is secsh-broker. It can include general, default-settings, profiles, static-tunnels, gui, and logging elements.

An example of an empty configuration file is shown below:

<!DOCTYPE secsh-broker SYSTEM "ssh-broker-ng-config-1.dtd">
<secsh-broker version="1.0">
  <general />
  <default-settings />
  <profiles />
  <static-tunnels />
  <gui />
  <logging />

</secsh-broker>

The general Element

The general element contains settings such as the cryptographic library and the key stores to be used.

The general element can contain zero or one instance of the following elements: crypto-lib, cert-validation, key-stores, user-config-directory, protocol-parameters; and multiple known-hosts elements.

crypto-lib

This element selects the cryptographic library mode to be used. Either the standard version (standard) or the FIPS 140-2 certified version (fips) of the cryptographic library can be used. The library name is given as a value of the mode attribute. By default, standard cryptographic libraries are used. The OpenSSL cryptographic library is used in the FIPS mode.

FIPS mode will be used if it is so specified either in the global or the user configuration file (or both).

<crypto-lib mode="standard" />

In the FIPS mode, the cryptographic operations are performed according to the rules of the FIPS 140-2 standard. The FIPS library includes the 3des-cbc, aes128-cbc, aes128-ctr, aes192-cbc, aes192-ctr, aes256-cbc, and aes256-ctr ciphers, and all the supported HMAC-SHA (both HMAC-SHA1 and HMAC-SHA2) variants of MAC. See cipher and mac.

For a list of platforms on which the FIPS library has been validated or tested, see Tectia Client/Server Product Description.

cert-validation

This element defines public-key infrastructure (PKI) settings used for validating remote server authentication certificates. The element can have the following attributes: end-point-identity-check, default-domain, http-proxy-url, socks-server-url, cache-size, max-crl-size, external-search-timeout, max-ldap-response-length, ldap-idle-timeout and max-path-length.

The end-point-identity-check attribute specifies whether the client will verify the server's host name or IP address against the Subject Name or Subject Alternative Name (DNS Address) specified in the server host certificate. The default value is yes. If set to no, the fields in the server host certificate are not verified and the certificate is accepted based on the validity period and CRL check only.

[Caution]Caution

Setting end-point-identity-check="no" is a security risk. Then anyone with a certificate issued by the same trusted certification authority (CA) that issues the server host certificates can perform a man-in-the-middle attack on the server.

Alternatively, if set to ask, the user can decide to either cancel or continue establishing the connection in case that the server's host name does not match the one in the certificate.

The default-domain attribute can be used when the end-point identity check is enabled. It specifies the default domain part of the remote system name and it is used if only the base part of the system name is available. The default-domain is appended to the system name if it does not contain a dot (.).

If the default domain is not specified, the end-point identity check will still work with short host names. For example, when a user tries to connect to a host "rock" giving only the short host name and the certificate contains the full DNS address "rock.example.com", the connection will be opened and Tectia Client will issue a warning about accepting a connection to "rock".

The http-proxy-url attribute defines an HTTP proxy and the socks-server-url attribute defines a SOCKS server for making LDAP or OCSP queries for certificate validity.

The address of the server is given as the value of the attribute. The format of the address is socks://username@socks_server:port/network/netmask,network/netmask ... (with a SOCKS server) or http://username@proxy_server:port/network/netmask,network/netmask ... (with an HTTP proxy).

For example, to make the SOCKS server use host socks.ssh.com and port 1080 for connections outside of networks 192.196.0.0 (16-bit domain) and 10.100.23.0 (8-bit domain), and to get these networks connected directly, set socks-server-url as follows:

"socks://mylogin@socks.ssh.com:1080/192.196.0.0/16,10.100.23.0/24"

The cache-size attribute defines the maximum size (in megabytes) of in-memory cache for the certificates and CRLs. The allowed value range is 1 to 512, and the default value is 35 MB.

The max-crl-size attribute defines the maximum accepted size (in megabytes) of CRLs. Processing large CRLs can consume a considerable amount of memory and processing power, so in some environments it is advisable to limit their size. The allowed value range is 1 to 512, and the default value is 11 MB.

The external-search-timeout attribute defines the time limit (in seconds) for external HTTP and LDAP searches for CRLs and certificates. The allowed value range is 1 to 3600 seconds, and the default value is 60 seconds.

The max-ldap-response-length attribute defines the maximum accepted size (in megabytes) of LDAP responses. The allowed value range is 1 to 512, and the default value is 11 MB.

The ldap-idle-timeout attribute defines an idle timeout for LDAP connections. The validation engine retains LDAP connections and reuses them in forthcoming searches. The connection is closed only after the LDAP idle timeout has been reached. The allowed value range is 1 to 3600 seconds, and the default idle timeout is 30 seconds.

The max-path-length attribute limits the length of the certification paths when validating certificates. It can be used to safeguard the paths or to optimize against the paths getting too long in a deeply hierarchical PKI or when the PKI is heavily cross-certified with other PKIs. Using the attributes requires knowing the upper limit of the paths used in certificate validation. For example:

<cert-validation max-path-length="6">
  <ldap-server address="ldap://myldap.com" port="389" />
  <dod-pki enable="yes" />
  <ca-certificate name="CA 1" file="ca-certificate1.crt" />
</cert-validation>

In the example, the path is limited to six certificates, including the end-entity and root CA certificates. If not specified, the default value is 10. Decrease the value to optimize the validation if the maximum length of the encountered paths in the certificate validation is known.

The cert-validation element can contain multiple ldap-server, ocsp-responder, crl-prefetch elements, one dod-pki element, and multiple ca-certificate and key-store elements. The elements have to be in the listed order.

ldap-server

This element specifies an LDAP server address and port used for fetching CRLs and/or subordinate CA certificates based on the issuer name of the certificate being validated. Several LDAP servers can be specified by using several ldap-server elements.

CRLs are automatically retrieved from the CRL distribution point defined in the certificate to be verified if the point exists.

The default value for port is 389.

ocsp-responder

This element specifies an OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) responder service address in URL format with attribute url. Several OCSP responders can be specified by using several ocsp-responder elements.

If the certificate has a valid Authority Info Access extension with an OCSP Responder URL, it will be used instead of this setting. Note that for the OCSP validation to succeed, both the end-entity certificate and the OCSP Responder certificate must be issued by the same CA.

The validity-period (in seconds) can be optionally defined. During this time, new OCSP queries for the same certificate are not made but the old result is used. The default validity period is 0 (a new query is made every time).

crl-prefetch

This element instructs Tectia Client to periodically download a CRL from the specified URL. The url value can be an LDAP or HTTP URL, or it can refer to a local file. The file format must be either binary DER or base64, PEM is not supported.

To download CRLs from the local file system, define the file URL in this format:

file:///absolute/path/name

To download CRLs from an LDAP server, define the LDAP URL in this format:

ldap://ldap.server.com:389/CN=Root%20CA,
       OU=certification%20authorities,DC=company,
       DC=com?certificaterevocationlist

Use the interval attribute to specify how often the CRL is downloaded. The default is 3600 seconds.

dod-pki

One of the compliance requirements of the US Department of Defense Public-Key Infrastructure (DoD PKI) is to have the Digital Signature bit set in the Key Usage of the certificate. To enforce digital signature in key usage, set the value of the enable attribute to yes. The default is no.

ca-certificate

This element defines a certification authority (CA) used in server authentication. It can have four attributes: name, file, disable-crls, and use-expired-crls.

The name attribute must contain the name of the CA.

The element must either contain the path to the X.509 CA certificate file as a value of the file attribute, or include the certificate as a base64-encoded ASCII block.

CRL checking can be disabled by setting the disable-crls attribute to yes. The default is no.

Expired CRLs can be used by setting a numeric value (in seconds) for the use-expired-crls attribute. The default is 0 (do not use expired CRLs).

key-store

This element defines CA certificates stored in an external key store for server authentication. Currently it is used only on z/OS for CA certificates stored in System Authorization Facility (SAF).

An example of a certificate validation configuration is shown below:

<cert-validation  end-point-identity-check="yes" 
                  default-domain="example.com"
                  http-proxy-url="http://proxy.example.com:8080">
  <ldap-server    address="ldap://ldap.example.com:389" />
  <ocsp-responder url="http://ocsp.example.com:8090" 
                  validity-period="0" /> 
  <crl-prefetch   url="file:///full.path.to.crlfile" 
                  interval="1800" />
  <dod-pki        enable="no" />
  <ca-certificate name="ssh_ca1"
                  file="ssh_ca1.crt"
                  disable-crls="no"
                  use-expired-crls="100" />
</cert-validation>         
key-stores

This element defines settings for user public-key and certificate authentication.

Under the <general> element, there can be one <key-stores> instance which in turn can have any number of <key-store>, <user-keys>, and <identification> elements, and the order of the elements is free.

Special variables and environment variables can be used when defining the values for the elements. The following variables can be used and they will be expanded as follows:

  • %U = %USERNAME% = user name

  • %USERNAME-WITHOUT-DOMAIN% = user name without the domain part

  • %IU = %USERID% = user ID (not on Windows)

  • %IG = %GROUPID% = user group ID (not on Windows)

  • %D = %HOMEDIR% = the user's home directory

  • %G = %GROUPNAME% = the name of the user's default group

Also environment variables are replaced with their current values. For example it is possible to use strings $HOME or %HOME% to expand to user's home directory (if environment variable HOME is set).

[Note]Note

Short alias names (for example, %U) are case-sensitive and long alias names (for example, %USERNAME%) are case-insensitive.

key-store

Each of the key-store elements configures one key store provider. The key-stores/key-store element can take the following attributes: type and init.

The type attribute is the key store type. The currently supported types are "mscapi", "pkcs11", "software", and "zos-saf".

The init attribute is the initialization info specific to the key-store-provider. The initialization string can contain special strings explained above in key-stores.

For key store configuration examples, see the section called “Key Store Configuration Examples”.

user-keys

The user-keys element can be used to override the default directory for the user keys. The user-keys element can take the following attributes:

The directory attribute defines the directory where the user private keys are stored. Enter the full path.

The passphrase-timeout attribute defines the time (in seconds) after which the passphrase-protected private key will time out, and the user must enter the passphrase again. The default is 0, meaning that the passphrase does not time out. The value of this element should be longer than the passphrase-idle-timeout value.

By default, the Connection Broker keeps the passphrase-protected private keys open once the user has entered the passphrase successfully. This can be changed with the passphrase timeout options. When passphrase-timeout is set, the private key stays open (usable without further passphrase prompts) until the timeout expires. The passphrase-timeout attribute sets the hard timeout, that is set only once when the key is opened and will not be reset even if the key is used multiple times.

The passphrase-idle-timeout attribute defines the time (in seconds) after which the passphrase-protected private key will time out unless the user accesses or uses the key. The passphrase-idle-timeout is reset every time the key is accessed. The default is 0, meaning that the passphrase never times out.

Both of the timeout options can be set simultaneously, but notice that if the idle timeout is set longer than the hard timeout, the idle timeout has no effect.

identification

The identification element can be used to override the default location of the identification file that defines the user keys. The identification element can take the following attributes:

The file attribute specifies the location of the identification file. Enter the full path.

The base-path attribute defines the directory where the identification file expects the user private keys to be stored. This element can be used to override the default relative path interpretation of the identification file (paths relative to the identification file directory).

The passphrase-timeout attribute defines the time (in seconds) after which the user must enter the passphrase again. The default is 0, meaning that the passphrase is not re-requested.

The passphrase-idle-timeout attribute defines a time (in seconds) after which the passphrase times out if there are no user actions. The default is 0, meaning that the passphrase does not time out.

The timeout settings affect only those private keys that are listed in the identification file.

strict-host-key-checking
[Note]Note

This element is deprecated starting from Tectia Client version 6.1.4.

This element is supported in configuration for backwards compatibility and used only if the policy attribute of the server-authentication-methods/auth-server-publickey element under default-settings or profiles/profile is not defined. In this case, the host key policy is interpreted based on the values of this option and the host-key-always-ask and accept-unknown-host-keys options. See auth-server-publickey for details.

host-key-always-ask
[Note]Note

This element is deprecated starting from Tectia Client version 6.1.4.

This element is supported in configuration for backwards compatibility and used only if the policy attribute of the server-authentication-methods/auth-server-publickey element under default-settings or profiles/profile is not defined. In this case, the host key policy is interpreted based on the values of this option and the strict-host-key-checking and accept-unknown-host-keys options. See auth-server-publickey for details.

accept-unknown-host-keys
[Note]Note

This element is deprecated starting from Tectia Client version 6.1.4.

This element is supported in configuration for backwards compatibility and used only if the policy attribute of the server-authentication-methods/auth-server-publickey element under default-settings or profiles/profile is not defined. In this case, the host key policy is interpreted based on the values of this option and the strict-host-key-checking and host-key-always-ask options. See auth-server-publickey for details.

[Caution]Caution

Consider carefully before enabling this option. Disabling the host-key checks makes you vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.

user-config-directory

This element can be used to change the storage location of the user-specific configuration files away from the default which is $HOME/.ssh2/ on Unix, and "%APPDATA%\SSH" on Windows. It can be used for example, if you want to store all client-side configurations to a centralized location.

When this element is added to the global configuration file, the Connection Broker reads the following user-specific files in the defined location:

  • User's key file

  • User's own configuration files

  • User's known host keys

  • User's random_seed file

  • Windows GUI profile files: 1.ssh2, 2.ssh2

  • The startup batch file for the sftpg3 client: ssh_sftp_batch_file

[Note]Note

Stop all existing SSH applications before modifying the user-config-directory setting in the Connection Broker configuration.

The user-config-directory setting affects all Tectia products running on the same host, for example Tectia Client and Tectia ConnectSecure.

The user-config-directory option takes an attribute path, whose value can be either a directory path or one of the following variables:

  • %U: The user name.

  • %username%: The user name.

  • %username-without-domain%: The user name without domain definition.

  • %D: The user's home directory.

  • %homedir%: The user's home directory.

  • %USER_CONFIG_DIRECTORY%: The user-specific configuration directory.

  • %IU: The user's ID, on Unix only

  • %userid%: The user's ID, on Unix only

  • %IG: The group ID, on Unix only

  • %groupid%: The group ID, on Unix only

The default is %USER_CONFIG_DIRECTORY%. This variable refers to the user-specific configuration directory: $HOME/.ssh2 on Unix, and %APPDATA%\SSH on Windows. The %USER_CONFIG_DIRECTORY% variable cannot be used in other settings.

file-access-control

On Unix, this element can be used to enable checking of file access permissions defined for the global and user-specific configuration files, and for the private keys files. If the permissions are not as expected, the Connection Broker will refuse to start, or to use certain private keys.

By default this setting is disabled. On Windows, this element has no effect.

The file permissions are checked differently, if the file-access-control element is set in both the global and user configuration files, or just in one of them. See the following table for details:

Table A.1. Different file-access-control effects

Setting in:Permissions checked in:
Global configUser configGlobal configUser configPrivate key files
yesyes / -checkedcheckedchecked
yesnocheckedcheckednot checked
no / -yesnot checkedcheckedchecked
no / -no / -not checkednot checkednot checked

In the table: "no" means file-access-control enable="no". The "-" sign means that the setting is not defined in the file at all.

When the file access permissions are checked, the controls are applied as follows:

  • Expected permissions for the global configuration file: read rights for all, write rights only for the user and group. If the permissions are any wider, the Connection Broker will not start.

  • Expected permissions for the user configuration file: only the user has read and write rights. If the permissions are any wider, the Connection Broker will not start.

  • Expected permissions for the private key files: only the user has read and write rights. If the permissions are any wider, keys that do not pass the check will be ignored.

protocol-parameters

This element contains protocol-specific values that can be used to tune the performance. It should be used only in very specific environments. In normal situations the default values should be used.

The threads attribute can be used to define the number of threads the protocol library uses (fast path dispatcher threads). This attribute can be used to allow more concurrent cryptographic transforms in the protocol on systems with more than four CPUs. If the value is set to zero, the default value is used.

Example of the threads attribute:

<protocol-parameters threads="8" />
known-hosts

This element can be used to specify locations for storing the host keys of known server hosts, and to define the storage format of the host key files. If no known-hosts directories are specified, the known host keys are stored to the default directories. See the section called “Files” for the default locations. On z/OS (only), this element can contain key-store elements.

This element can be used:

  • To specify non-default directories that contain the public-key data or public-key files of known server hosts.

  • To specify a non-default location for OpenSSH-style known_hosts files that contain the public-key data of known server hosts.

  • (On z/OS) To specify a SAF key store that contains the certificates of known server hosts.

The server host keys are searched in the known-hosts paths in the order they are specified in the configuration. The settings of the last defined known-hosts element are used when storing new host keys.

If you define any known-hosts file settings, the default OpenSSH files will be overridden. So if you wish to make the Connection Broker use both the default OpenSSH locations and other locations specified in the configuration, you need to specify all the locations separately.

You can define several known-hosts elements, and each of them can contain one or several attributes: path, directory, file and filename-format.

The path attribute requires a full path to the known-hosts file or directory as the value. For example:

<known-hosts path="/u/username/.ssh/known_hosts" />
<known-hosts path="/etc/ssh2/hostkeys" />
<known-hosts path="/u/username/.ssh2/hostkeys" />
<known-hosts path="/h/username/hostkeys" filename-format="plain" />

The directory attribute is used to define that known host keys are saved to a non-default directory. Enter the complete path to the directory as the value. If the defined directory does not exist, it will be created during the first connection attempt. If a file is found in its place, the connection will be made but the host key will not be stored, and the user gets a warning about it. The filename-format attribute can be used together with the directory setting to define in which format the host key files will be stored. Example of the directory attribute:

<known-hosts directory="<path_to_dir>/MyKEYS" 
             filename-format="plain" />

The path or directory (whichever is present) defined in the last known-hosts element in the configuration file will be used when storing new known host keys. If both attributes are present in the last known-hosts element, the location specified in the directory attribute will be used.

The file attribute is used to point to an OpenSSH-style known_hosts file. Enter the complete path to the file as the value. If a directory is found in its place, it is considered an error, and the connection attempt will fail. In case the known-hosts element only contains the file attribute, and the defined OpenSSH known_hosts file exists, the received host keys are searched first in the defined file, and if not found there, the search continues in the default Tectia-specific locations.

Example of the file attribute:

<known-hosts file="<path_to_file>/.ssh2/openSSH_keys" />

An empty file or path attribute will disable the handling of the OpenSSH known_hosts file:

<known-hosts file="" />
or
<known-hosts path="" />

The filename-format attribute defines the format in which new host key files are stored. The filename-format attribute is only relevant for the last specified known-hosts element and for the default directory.

The filename-format attribute takes the values: hash (default), plain, and default (equals to hash).

With value hash, the host key files will be stored in format: keys_<hash>, for example "keys_182166d2efe5a134d3fb948646e0b48f780bff6c".

With value plain, the file name format will be key_<port>_<hostname>.pub, where <port> is the port the Secure Shell server is running on and <hostname> is the host name you use when connecting to the server; for example "key_22_my.example.com.pub".

Setting <known-hosts filename-format="plain" /> changes the storage format of host key files for the next known-hosts elements or for the default storage location if no other known-hosts elements are present.

The filename-format="default" alternative can be used as the last option when the same known-hosts element is used to define several locations for the host keys some of which store the keys in plain format.

For more information on the host key storage formats, see Host Key Storage Formats.

key-store

This element defines an external key store for certificates of known server hosts. Currently it is used only on z/OS for server certificates stored in System Authorization Facility (SAF).

extended

This element is reserved for future use.

Key Store Configuration Examples

Example with Software Provider

The software provider handles key pairs stored on disk in standard Secure Shell v2 or legacy OpenSSH formats and X.509 certificates stored in native X.509, PKCS #7, and PKCS #12 formats.

To add a single key file (for example, /u/exa/keys/enigma and /etc/my_key), specify both the private key file and the public key file:

<key-stores>
  <key-store type="software" 
             init="key_files(/u/exa/keys/enigma.pub,/u/exa/keys/enigma)" />
  <key-store type="software" 
             init="key_files(/etc/my_key.pub,/etc/my_key)" />
</key-stores>

To add all keys from a specific directory (for example all keys from /u/exa/keys and /etc/keys):

<key-stores>
  <key-store type="software" 
             init="directory(path(/u/exa/keys))" />
  <key-store type="software" 
             init="directory(path(/etc/keys))" />
</key-stores>

Example with PKCS #11 Provider

The PKCS #11 provider handles keys and certificates stored in PKCS #11 tokens (for example, smart cards or USB tokens).

Specify the dynamic library path for the PKCS provider and all or a specific slot. For example, with all slots:

<key-stores>
  <key-store type="pkcs11" init="dll(/usr/lib/pkcs.so),slots(all)" />
</key-stores>

For example, with one slot named sesam:

<key-stores>
  <key-store type="pkcs11" init="dll(/usr/local/lib/pkcs.so),slots(sesam)" />
</key-stores>

The default-settings Element

The default-settings element defines the default connection-related settings. Profile-specific settings can override these settings. See the section called “The profiles Element”.

The default-settings element can contain zero or one instance of the following elements in the listed order: ciphers, macs, kexs, hostkey-algorithms, rekey, authentication-methods, hostbased-default-domain, compression, proxy, idle-timeout, tcp-connect-timeout, keepalive-interval, exclusive-connection, server-banners, forwards, extended, remote-environment, server-authentication-methods, authentication-success-message, sftpg3-mode, terminal-selection, terminal-bell, close-window-on-disconnect, quiet-mode, checksum, and address-family.

The default-settings element can take one attribute:

The user attribute can be used to define a default user name to be used when connecting to remote servers. The value of the user attribute can be one of the following:

  • A generic user name that will be used in connections unless another user name is specified in the connection profile settings or in the connection attempt. Note that the user name is treated case sensitively.

  • "%USERNAME%" can be used to apply the user name of the currently logged in user.

  • In case this option is used but left empty, the Connection Broker will prompt the user for a user name.

The default-settings element can contain the following elements:

ciphers

This element defines the ciphers that the client will propose to the server. The ciphers element can contain multiple cipher elements.

The ciphers are tried in the order they are specified.

cipher

This element selects a cipher name that the client requests for data encryption.

The supported ciphers are:

3des-cbcaes256-ctrtwofish256-cbc
aes128-cbcarcfourcrypticore128@ssh.com
aes192-cbcblowfish-cbcseed-cbc@ssh.com
aes256-cbctwofish-cbcnone (no encryption)
aes128-ctrtwofish128-cbc 
aes192-ctrtwofish192-cbc 

The default ciphers used by the Connection Broker are, in order: crypticore128@ssh.com (on Windows and Linux x86), aes128-cbc, aes128-ctr, aes192-cbc, aes192-ctr, aes256-cbc, aes256-ctr, and 3des-cbc.

The ciphers that can operate in the FIPS mode are 3des-cbc, aes128-cbc, aes128-ctr, aes192-cbc, aes192-ctr, aes256-cbc, and aes256-ctr.

<ciphers>
  <cipher name="aes128-cbc" />
  <cipher name="3des-cbc" />
</ciphers>
macs

This element defines the MACs that the client will propose to the server. The macs element can contain multiple mac elements.

The MACs are tried in the order they are specified.

mac

This element selects a MAC name that the client requests for data integrity verification.

The supported MAC algorithms are:

hmac-md5hmac-sha256@ssh.com
hmac-md5-96hmac-sha384@ssh.com
hmac-sha1hmac-sha2-512
hmac-sha1-96hmac-sha512@ssh.com
hmac-sha2-256crypticore-mac@ssh.com
hmac-sha256-2@ssh.comnone (no data integrity verification)
hmac-sha224@ssh.com 

The default MACs used by the Connection Broker are, in order:

crypticore-mac@ssh.com (on Windows and Linux x86)
hmac-sha1
hmac-sha1-96
hmac-sha2-256
hmac-sha256-2@ssh.com
hmac-sha224@ssh.com
hmac-sha256@ssh.com
hmac-sha384@ssh.com
hmac-sha2-512
hmac-sha512@ssh.com

All the supported HMAC-SHA (both HMAC-SHA1 and HMAC-SHA2) algorithm variants can operate in the FIPS mode.

<macs>
  <mac name="hmac-sha1" />
</macs>
kexs

This element defines the key exchange methods (KEXs) that the client will propose to the server. The kexs element can contain multiple kex elements.

The KEXs are tried in the order they are specified.

kex

This element selects a KEX name that the client requests for the key exchange method.

The supported KEX methods are:

diffie-hellman-group1-sha1
diffie-hellman-group14-sha1
diffie-hellman-group14-sha224@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group14-sha256@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group15-sha256@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group15-sha384@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group16-sha384@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group16-sha512@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group18-sha512@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha224@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha384@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha512@ssh.com
ecdh-sha2-nistp256
ecdh-sha2-nistp384
ecdh-sha2-nistp521

The default KEX methods used by the Connection Broker are, in order:

diffie-hellman-group14-sha1
diffie-hellman-group14-sha256@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256

All the supported KEXs can operate in the FIPS mode on Linux, Windows, Solaris and HP-UX Itanium. However, the following supported KEXs cannot operate in the FIPS mode on HP-UX PA-RISC and IBM AIX due to issues in the OpenSSL cryptographic library version 0.9.8:

diffie-hellman-group15-sha256@ssh.com
diffie-hellman-group15-sha384@ssh.com
ecdh-sha2-nistp256
ecdh-sha2-nistp384
ecdh-sha2-nistp521

For more information on the FIPS-Certified Cryptographic Library, see FIPS-Certified Cryptographic Library.

<kexs>
   <kex name="diffie-hellman-group14-sha1" />
   <kex name="diffie-hellman-group14-sha256@ssh.com" />
</kexs>
hostkey-algorithms

This element defines the host key signature algorithms used for server authentication. The algorithms that will be used are those that are defined in both Tectia Server and Connection Broker configuration files. This way the use of only certain algorithms, such as SHA-2, can be enforced by the server. The hostkey-algorithms element can contain multiple hostkey-algorithm elements.

The hostkey algorithms are tried in the order they are specified. Exception: If a host key of a server already exists in the host key store of the client, its algorithm is preferred.

hostkey-algorithm

This element selects a host key signature algorithm name to be used in server authentication with host keys or certificates.

The supported host key signature algorithms are:

ssh-dssx509v3-sign-dss
ssh-dss-sha224@ssh.comx509v3-sign-dss-sha224@ssh.com
ssh-dss-sha256@ssh.comx509v3-sign-dss-sha256@ssh.com
ssh-dss-sha384@ssh.comx509v3-sign-dss-sha384@ssh.com
ssh-dss-sha512@ssh.comx509v3-sign-dss-sha512@ssh.com
ssh-rsax509v3-sign-rsa
ssh-rsa-sha224@ssh.comx509v3-sign-rsa-sha224@ssh.com
ssh-rsa-sha256@ssh.comx509v3-sign-rsa-sha256@ssh.com
ssh-rsa-sha384@ssh.comx509v3-sign-rsa-sha384@ssh.com
ssh-rsa-sha512@ssh.comx509v3-sign-rsa-sha512@ssh.com
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256
ecdsa-sha2-nistp384x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384
ecdsa-sha2-nistp521x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp521

The default host key signature algorithms used by the Connection Broker are, in order:

ssh-dss
ssh-rsa
ssh-dss-sha256@ssh.com
ssh-rsa-sha256@ssh.com
x509v3-sign-dss
x509v3-sign-rsa
x509v3-sign-dss-sha256@ssh.com
x509v3-sign-rsa-sha256@ssh.com
<hostkey-algorithms>
   <hostkey-algorithm name="ssh-dss-sha512@ssh.com" />
   <hostkey-algorithm name="ssh-rsa-sha224@ssh.com" />
</hostkey-algorithms>
rekey

This element specifies the number of transferred bytes after which the key exchange is done again. The value "0" turns rekey requests off. This does not prevent the server from requesting rekeys, however. The default is 1000000000 (1 GB).

<rekey bytes="1000000000" />
authentication-methods

This element specifies the authentication methods that are requested by the client-side components. The authentication-methods element can contain one of each: auth-hostbased, auth-password, auth-publickey, auth-gssapi, and auth-keyboard-interactive. Alternatively, you can specify multiple authentication-method elements. The order of these elements is free.

The authentication methods are tried in the order the auth-* or authentication-method elements are listed. This means that the least interactive methods should be placed first.

When several interactive authentication methods are defined as allowed, Tectia Client will alternate between the methods and offers each of them in turn to the server in case the previous method failed.

authentication-method

This element specifies an authentication method name. It is included for backwards compatibility. Use the auth-* elements instead.

The allowed authentication method names are: gssapi-with-mic, publickey, keyboard-interactive, password, and hostbased.

Tectia Client supports host-based authentication only on Unix platforms.

<authentication-methods>
  <authentication-method name="hostbased" />
  <authentication-method name="gssapi-with-mic" />
  <authentication-method name="publickey" />
  <authentication-method name="keyboard-interactive" />
  <authentication-method name="password" />
</authentication-methods>
auth-hostbased

This element specifies that host-based authentication will be used.

The auth-hostbased element can include a local-hostname element.

local-hostname

This element specifies the local host name, as the value of the name attribute, that is advertised to the remote server during host-based authentication.

The remote server can use the client host name as a hint when locating the public key for the client host. This information is not significant to the authentication result, but makes it faster to find the relevant client host key, if the server has such a big storage of host identities, that trying them all would be infeasible.

auth-password

This element specifies that password authentication will be used.

auth-publickey

This element specifies that public-key authentication will be used.

The auth-publickey element can include a key-selection element.

The auth-publickey element can include a signature-algorithms attribute. The attribute defines the public-key signature algorithms used for client authentication, given as a comma-separated list. The algorithms that will be used are those that are defined in both Tectia Server and Connection Broker configuration files. This way the use of only certain algorithms, such as SHA-2, can be enforced. For a list of the supported algorithms, see hostkey-algorithm.

<authentication-methods>
  <auth-publickey signature-algorithms="ssh-dss,ssh-dss-sha512@ssh.com"/>
</authentication-methods>
key-selection

This element specifies the key selection policy the client uses when proposing user public keys to the server. The policy attribute can take the values automatic (default) and interactive-shy.

In the automatic mode, the client tries keys in the following order:

  1. Keys with public key available and private key without a passphrase (no user interaction)

  2. Keys with public key available but private key behind a passphrase (one passphrase query)

  3. Keys that need a passphrase to get the public key but private key without passphrase (one user query for each key which is considered and proposed to server, but no user interaction for actual public-key login)

  4. The rest of the keys, that is, keys that need a passphrase to get the public key and also to get the private key

In the interactive-shy mode, the client does not try any keys automatically, but it prompts the user to select the key from a list of available keys. If the authentication with the selected key fails, the client will prompt the user again, removing the already tried key(s) from the list. If there is only one key candidate available, the key will be tried automatically without asking the user.

The key-selection element can include the public-key and issuer-name elements.

public-key

This element can be used to specify that only plain public keys or only certificates are tried during public-key authentication. The type attribute can take the values plain and certificate. The default is to try both plain public keys and certificates.

issuer-name

This element can be used to filter the user certificates that will be included in the list presented to the user. The client-side user certificates can be filtered according to the issuer name that is compared to the certificate issuers requested or accepted by the server. The match-server-certificate attribute takes values yes and no. With value yes, Connection Broker tries matching the user certificate issuer name to the server certificate issuer name. Option no means that the issuer names are not used as a filter. By default, the filtering is not done.

The issuer-name is useful when a user has several certificates with different access rights to the same server, for example for a testing role and for an administrator role. The Connection Broker chooses the relevant certificates that are applicable on the remote host, and the user can choose the correct certificate from the short-listed ones.

auth-keyboard-interactive

This element specifies that keyboard-interactive methods will be used in authentication.

auth-gssapi

This element specifies that GSSAPI will be used in authentication.

The auth-gssapi element can take the following attributes:

The dll-path attribute specifies where the necessary GSSAPI libraries are located. If this attribute is not specified, the libraries are searched for in a number of common locations. The full path to the libraries should be given, for example, "/usr/lib/libkrb5.so,/usr/lib/libgssapi_krb5.so".

On AIX, the dll-path should include the archive file, if applicable, for example, "<path>/libgssapi_krb5.a(libgssapi_krb5.a.so)". The archive(shared_object) syntax is not necessary if the library is a shared object or has been extracted from the shared object.

On Windows, the dll-path attribute is ignored. Tectia Client locates the correct DLL automatically.

The allow-ticket-forwarding attribute defines whether Tectia Client allows forwarding the Kerberos ticket over several connections. The attribute can have a value of yes or no. The default is no.

An example of authentication-methods configuration is shown below:

<authentication-methods>
  <auth-hostbased>
    <local-hostname name="host.example.com" />
  </auth-hostbased>
  <auth-gssapi allow-ticket-forwarding="yes"/>
  <auth-publickey>
    <key-selection policy="interactive-shy">
      <public-key type="plain" />
    </key-selection>
  </auth-publickey>
  <auth-keyboard-interactive />
  <auth-password>
    <password file="/path/filename" />
  </auth-password>
</authentication-methods>
hostbased-default-domain

This element specifies the host's default domain name (as name). This element is used to make sure the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the client host is transmitted to the server when using host-based user authentication.

The default domain name is appended to the short host name before transmitting it to the server. This is needed because some platforms (Solaris for instance) use the short format of the host name, and with that the signature cannot be created.

The allowed formats of the default domain names are: .example.com and example.com (without the leading dot). For example:

<hostbased-default-domain name=".example.com" />
compression

This element specifies whether the client sends the data compressed (PUT operation). When activated, compression is applied on-the-fly to all data sent out through the connection and on all channels in it.

The name of the compression algorithm and the compression level can be given as attributes. The name attribute can be defined as none (compression not used) or zlib, currently the only supported algorithm. By default, compression is not used.

For zlib compression, the level attribute can be given an integer from 0 to 9. The default compression level is 6, when compression is activated but no level is given (or level is set to 0).

Example: to activate maximum level compression of sent data, make the following setting:

<compression name="zlib" level="9" />

Compression can also be activated per connection with command line tools. For information, see the sshg3(1), sftpg3(1) and scpg3(1) man pages.

Note that this compression setting does not affect received data (GET operations), but their compression is defined on the Secure Shell server. Tectia Server always uses compression level 6.

proxy

This element defines rules for HTTP proxy or SOCKS servers the client will use for connections. It has a single attribute: ruleset.

The format of the attribute value is a sequence of rules delimited by semicolons (;). Each rule has a format that resembles the URL format. In a rule, the connection type is given first. The type can be direct, socks, socks4, socks5, or http-connect (socks is a synonym for socks4). This is followed by the server address and port. If the port is not given, the default ports are used: 1080 for SOCKS and 80 for HTTP.

After the address, zero or more conditions delimited by commas (,) are given. The conditions can specify IP addresses or DNS names.

direct:///[cond[,cond]...];
socks://server/[cond[,cond]...];
socks4://server/[cond[,cond]...];
socks5://server/[cond[,cond]...];
http-connect://server/[cond[,cond]...]

The IP address/port conditions have an address pattern and an optional port range:

ip_pattern[:port_range]

The ip_pattern may have one of the following forms:

  • a single IP address x.x.x.x

  • an IP address range of the form x.x.x.x-y.y.y.y

  • an IP sub-network mask of the form x.x.x.x/y

The DNS name conditions consist of a host name which may be a regular expression containing the characters "*" and "?" and a port range:

name_pattern[:port_range]

An example proxy element is shown below. It causes the server to access the loopback address and the ssh.com domain directly, access *.example with HTTP CONNECT, and all other destinations with SOCKS4.

<proxy ruleset="direct:///127.0.0.0/8,*.ssh.com;
                http-connect://http-proxy.ssh.com:8080/*.example;
                socks://fw.ssh.com:1080/" />
idle-timeout

This element specifies how long idle time (after all connection channels are closed) is allowed for a connection before automatically closing the connection. The time is given in seconds. The type is always connection.

The default setting is 5 seconds. Setting a longer time allows the connection to the server to remain open even after a session (for example, sshg3) is closed. During this time, a new session to the server can be initiated without re-authentication. Setting the time to 0 (zero) terminates the connection immediately when the last channel to the server is closed.

<idle-timeout time="5" />
tcp-connect-timeout

This element specifies a timeout for the TCP connection. When this setting is made, connection attempts to a Secure Shell server are stopped after the defined time if the remote host is down or unreachable. This timeout overrides the default system TCP timeout, and this timeout setting can be overridden by defining a tcp-connect-timeout setting per connection profile (in the profiles settings) or per connection (on command line).

The time is given in seconds. The factory default is 5 seconds. Value 0 (zero) disables this feature and the default system TCP timeout will be used.

<tcp-connect-timeout time="5" />
keepalive-interval

This element specifies an interval for sending keepalive messages to the Secure Shell server. The time value is given in seconds. The default setting is 0, meaning that the keepalive messages are disabled.

<keepalive-interval time="0" />
exclusive-connection

The exclusive-connection element can be used to specify that a new connection is opened for each new channel. This setting takes one attribute enable, with value yes or no. The default is no, meaning that open connections are reused for new channels requested by a client.

server-banners

This element defines whether the server banner message file (if it exists) is visible to the user before login. The word yes or no is given as the value of the visible attribute. The default is yes.

To eliminate server banners:

<server-banners visible="no" />
forwards

This element contains forward elements that define whether X11 or agent forwarding (tunneling) are allowed on the client side.

forward

This element defines X11 or agent forwarding settings.

The type attribute defines the forwarding type (either x11 or agent). The state attribute sets the forwarding on, off, or denied. If the forwarding is set as denied, the user cannot enable it on the command-line.

An example forward configuration, which denies X11 forwarding and allows agent forwarding globally, is shown below:

<forwards>
  <forward type="x11" state="denied" />
  <forward type="agent" state="on" />
</forwards>

For more information on using X11 and agent forwarding, see X11 Forwarding and Agent Forwarding.

extended

This element is reserved for future use.

remote-environment

This element contains environment elements which define the environment variables to be passed to the server from the client side. The environment variables are then set on the server when requesting a command, shell or subsystem.

Note that the server can restrict the setting of environment variables.

environment

This element defines the name and value of the environment variables, and whether the Connection Broker should process the value. Possible attributes are name, value, and format.

An example remote environment configuration:

<remote-environment>
  <environment name="FOO" value="bar" />
  <environment name="QUX" value="%Ubaz" format="yes" />
  <environment name="ZAPPA" value="%Ubaz" />
</remote-environment>

You can use %U in the value to indicate a user name. When format="yes" is also defined, the Connection Broker processes the %U into the actual user name before sending it to the server.

Let's assume the user name is joedoe in this example. The example configuration results in the following environment variables on the server side, provided that the server allows setting the environment variables:

FOO=bar 
QUX=joedoebaz 
ZAPPA=%Ubaz 

You can override the remote environment settings made in the configuration file if you use the sshg3 command with the following arguments on the command-line client: --remote-environment or --remote-environment-format

For information on the command-line options, see sshg3(1).

server-authentication-methods

This server-authentication-methods element can be used to force the Connection Broker to use only certain methods in server authentication. This element can contain auth-server-publickey and auth-server-certificate elements (one of each). The order of these elements is free.

If only auth-server-certificate is specified, server certificate is needed. If no server certificate is received, connection fails.

If only auth-server-publickey is specified, (plain) server public key is needed. If no server public key is received, connection fails.

If both auth-server-certificate and auth-server-publickey are specified, server certificate is used if present. Otherwise server public key is used.

auth-server-certificate

The auth-server-certificate element specifies that certificates are used for server authentication.

auth-server-publickey

The auth-server-publickey element specifies that public host keys are used for server authentication.

[Note]Note

The host key policy settings have changed in version 6.1.4 and are now defined in the auth-server-publickey element.

The element takes attribute policy that defines how unknown server host keys are handled. It can have the following values:

  • strict: Connect to the server only if the host key is found from the host key store and matches.

    If the policy is set to strict, the Connection Broker never adds host keys to the user's .ssh2/hostkeys directory upon connection, and refuses to connect to hosts whose key has changed. This provides maximum protection against man-in-the-middle attacks. However, it also means you must always obtain host keys via out-of-band means, which can be troublesome if you frequently connect to new hosts.

  • ask (default): If the server host key is not found from the host key store, the user will be asked if he wants to accept the host key. If the host key has changed, the user is warned about it and asked how to proceed. If the client application is not able to ask the user (for example, sftpg3 in batch mode, -B), the connection will be disconnected.

  • trust-on-first-use or tofu: If the server host key is not found, it is stored to the user's .ssh2/hostkeys directory. If the host key has changed, the connection will be disconnected.

  • advisory: Use of this setting effectively disables server authentication, which makes the connection vulnerable to active attackers.

    If the server host key is not found in the host key store, it will be added to the user's .ssh2/hostkeys directory without user interaction. If the host key has changed, the connection will be continued without user interaction. The incident will be audited if logging is enabled.

    When the policy is set to advisory, the keys from new hosts are automatically accepted and stored to the host key database without prompting acceptance from the user. However, changed host keys (from hosts whose keys are already in the database) are not stored, but they are accepted for that connection only.

    This setting should be used only if logging is enabled for the Connection Broker.

    [Caution]Caution

    Consider carefully before setting the policy to advisory. Disabling the host-key checks makes you vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.

In policy modes other than strict, if logging is enabled for the Connection Broker, Tectia Client will log information about changed and new host public keys with their fingerprints in the syslog (on Unix) or Event Viewer (on Windows).

[Note]Note

When FTP-SFTP conversion is used, accepting the host key cannot be prompted from the user. Either the policy must be set to tofu or the host keys of the Secure Shell tunneling and SFTP servers must be obtained beforehand and stored based on the IP addresses of the servers.

If the policy attribute is not defined, the host key policy is interpreted based on the values of the old strict-host-key-checking, host-key-always-ask, and accept-unknown-host-keys options as shown in Table A.2 below.

[Note]Note

In version 6.1.4 and later, the host key policy setting in the user-specific configuration file always takes precedence over the setting in the global configuration file.

Table A.2. Interpretation of old host key policy (Tectia Client 5.0.0-6.1.3) to new host key policy (Tectia Client 6.1.4 and later)

strict-host-key-checkingaccept-unknown-host-keyshost-key-always-ask Policy
--- ask (default)
enabled-- strict
enabledenabled- strict
enabledenabledenabled ask
enabled-enabled ask
-enabled- trust on first use
-enabledenabled ask
--enabled ask
authentication-method

The server-authentication-methods/authentication-method element specifies an authentication method name. This element is included for backwards compatibility. Use the auth-server-* elements instead.

<server-authentication-methods>
  <authentication-method name="publickey" />
  <authentication-method name="certificate" />
</server-authentication-methods>

An example server-authentication-methods element is shown below:

<server-authentication-methods>
  <auth-server-publickey policy="ask" />
  <auth-server-certificate />
</server-authentication-methods>
authentication-success-message

This setting defines whether the AuthenticationSuccessMsg messages are output. The authentication-success-message element takes attribute enable with value yes or no. The default is yes, meaning that the messages are output and logged.

sftpg3-mode

This setting defines how the sftpg3 client behaves when transferring files. The sftpg3-mode element takes attribute compatibility-mode with the following values:

  • tectia (the default) - sftpg3 fransfers files recursively, meaning that files from the current directory and all its subdirectories are transferred.

  • ftp - the get/put commands are executed as sget/sput meaning that they transfer a single file; and commands mget/mput have recursion depth set to 1 meaning that they only transfer files from the specified directory, not from subdirectories.

  • openssh - commands get/put/mget/mput behave alike, and the recursion depth is set to 1, meaning that only files from the specified directory are transferred, not from subdirectories.

The recursion depth can be overridden by using the sftpg3 client's commands get/put/mget/mput with command-line option --max-depth="LEVEL". For more information, see sftpg3(1).

terminal-selection

This element defines how the Tectia terminal behaves when the user selects text with double-clicks. The element takes one attribute: selection-type, whose value can be:

select-words - double-clicking selects one word at a time, space and all punctuation characters are used as delimiters. This is the default.

select-paths - selects strings of characters between spaces, meaning a selection is extended over characters \/.-_, so that for example a path to a file can be selected by double-clicking anywhere in the path.

terminal-bell

This element defines whether Tectia terminal repeats audible notifications from the destination server. This option is only applied to connections with Unix servers. The element takes one attribute, bell-style, whose value can be:

none - no audible notifications are used

pc-speaker - the user's PC speakers beep when an audible notification is indicated by the destination server

system-default - the Tectia terminal sounds the default alerts defined in the system on the destination server. This is the default.

close-window-on-disconnect

This element defines that also the Tectia terminal window is to be closed while disconnecting from a server session by pressing CTRL+D. The element takes one attribute, enable, whose value can be yes or no. The default is no meaning that CTRL+D closes only the server connection but the Tectia terminal window remains open.

quiet-mode

This setting defines whether the command line clients should suppress warnings, error messages and authentication success messages. The quiet-mode element takes attribute enable with value yes or no. The default is no, meaning that the errors and messages are output and logged.

The quiet-mode element affects command line tools scpg3, sshg3, and sftpg3. Enabling the quiet mode here with setting quiet-mode enable="yes" is the same as running these clients with option -q. Note that the -q command line parameter will take priority over the quiet-mode element set in this configuration file.

checksum

The checksum element can be used to define a default setting for comparing checksums. This default overwrites the factory setting that checksums are not checked for files smaller than 32kB.

The checksum element takes attribute type, whose value can be:

yes|YES - MD5 checksums are checked on files larger than 32kB. This is the default value.

no|NO - checksums are not used.

md5|MD5 - only MD5 checksums are checked on files larger than 32kB. When the --fips parameter is set with the command line clients scpg3 and sftpg3, this hash is not used.

sha1|SHA1 - only SHA1 checksums are checked on files larger than 32kB. When the --fips parameter is set with the command line clients scpg3 and sftpg3, this hash is used.

md5-force|MD5-FORCE - MD5 checksums are forced, except when the --fips parameter is set with the command line tools scpg3 and sftpg3.

sha1-force|SHA1-FORCE - SHA1 checksums are forced on all files.

checkpoint|CHECKPOINT - checkpointing is forced on large files that are transferred one by one.

[Note]Note

If the Connection Broker is started in FIPS mode and the md5 attribute is defined in the configuration file, but scpg3 or sftpg3 are not started with the --fips parameter, then md5 is used.

Note that checksums can also be defined with the command line clients scpg3 and sftpg3, or with environment variables. The order of priority of the three checksum settings (in case they are different) is as follows, the later one always overwrites the previous value:

  • checksum setting in the configuration file

  • SSH_SFTP_CHECKSUM_MODE environment variable

  • Command line arguments

address-family

The address-family element defines the IP address family. Give the address family as the value of the type attribute. Tectia Client will operate using IPv4 (inet) addressing, IPv6 (inet6), or both (any). The default value for type is any.

The profiles Element

The profiles element defines the connection profiles for connecting to the specified servers. Element profiles can contain multiple profile elements. Each profile defines the connection rules to one server. The settings in the profile element override the default connection settings.

When a profile is used for the connection, the settings in the profile override the default settings. See the section called “The default-settings Element”.

profile

The profile element defines a connection profile. It has the following attributes: id, name, host, port, protocol, host-type, connect-on-startup, user, and gateway-profile.

The profile id must be a unique identifier that does not change during the lifetime of the profile.

An additional name can be given to the profile. This is a free-form text string. The name can be used for connecting with the profile on the command line, so define a unique name for each profile.

The host attribute defines the address of the Secure Shell server host and it is a mandatory setting. The address can be either an IP address or a domain name. The value host="*" can be used to prompt the user to enter the host address when starting the session.

The port is a mandatory setting. It defines the port number of the Secure Shell server listener. The default port is 22.

The protocol is a mandatory setting. It defines the used communications protocol. Currently the only allowed value is secsh2.

If you want to make the connection specified by the profile automatically when the Connection Broker is started, set the value of the connect-on-startup attribute to yes. In this case, give also the user attribute (the user name the connection is made with). You also need to set up some form of non-interactive authentication for the connection.

The host-type attribute sets the server type for ASCII (text) file transfer. This specifies the line break convention that is used for ASCII files. The default value is default, meaning that the line break convention is determined by the local platform. If the client is running on Windows, Windows compatible line breaks (CR + LF, '\r\n') are used. If the client is running on any other platform, Unix compatible line breaks (LF, '\n') are used. Other possible values for host-type are windows (for Windows remote host) and unix (for Unix remote host). Define the value if you are using any other server than Tectia Server.

The user attribute specifies the user name for opening the connection. The value "%USERNAME%" can be used to apply the user name of the currently logged in user. The value user="*" can be used to prompt the user to enter the user name when logging in. When the user attribute is not defined, the user name defined in the default connection settings will be used.

The gateway-profile attribute can be used to create nested tunnels. The tunnels defined under the local-tunnel element of the profile, and the tunnels defined under filter-engine and static-tunnels that refer to the profile can be nested. The profile name through which the connection is made is given as the value of the attribute. The first tunnel is created using the gateway host profile and from there the second tunnel is created to the host defined in this profile.

hostkey

This element gives the path to the remote server host public key file as a value of the file attribute.

Alternatively, the public key can be included as a base64-encoded ASCII block.

ciphers

This element defines the ciphers used with this profile. See ciphers for details.

macs

This element defines the MACs used with this profile. See macs for details.

kexs

This element defines the KEXs used with this profile. See kexs for details.

hostkey-algorithms

This element defines the hostkey signature algorithms used with this profile. See hostkey-algorithms for details.

rekey

This element defines the rekeying settings used with this profile. See rekey for details.

authentication-methods

This element defines the authentication methods used with this profile. See authentication-methods for details.

user-identities

This element specifies the identities used in user public-key authentication. In contrast to the key-stores element that specifies all the keys that are available for the Connection Broker, this element can be used to control the keys that are attempted in authentication when this connection profile is used and to specify the order in which they are attempted.

The user-identities element can contain multiple identity elements. When multiple identity elements are used, they are tried out in the order they are listed.

identity

The identity element has the following attributes: identity-file, file, hash, id, and data.

The identity-file attribute specifies that the user identity is read in the identification file used with public-key authentication. Enter the full path to the file if it is located somewhere else than the default identification file directory which is $HOME/.ssh2. See also ssh-broker-g3(1).

The file attribute specifies the path to the public-key file (primarily) or to a certificate. Enter the full path and file name as the value.

The hash attribute is used to enter the hash of the public key that will be used to identify the related private key. The key must be available for the Connection Broker The public key hashes of the available keys can be listed with the ssh-broker-ctl tool. See also ssh-broker-ctl(1).

The id attribute is reserved for future use.

The data attribute is reserved for future use.

An example user-identities element is shown below:

<user-identities>
  <identity identity-file="C:\\ mykey" />
  <identity file="$HOME/user/.ssh2/id_rsa_2048_a" />
  <identity file="C:\\private_keys\id_rsa_2048_a" />
  <identity hash="#a8edd3845005931aaa658b5573609e7d31e23afd" />
</user-identities>
compression

This element defines the compression settings used with this profile. See compression for details.

proxy

This element defines the HTTP proxy and SOCKS server settings used with this profile. See proxy for details.

If gateway-profile has been defined for this profile, the proxy setting is ignored and the default proxy setting or the proxy setting of the gateway profile is used instead.

idle-timeout

This element defines the idle timeout settings used with this profile. See idle-timeout for details.

tcp-connect-timeout

This element defines the TCP connection timeout for this profile. The timeout is used to terminate connection attempts to Secure Shell servers that are down or unreachable. The default value is 5 seconds. See tcp-connect-timeout for details.

keepalive-interval

This element defines an interval for sending keepalive messages to the Secure Shell server. The setting applies to this profile. The default value is 0, meaning that no keepalive messages are sent. See keepalive-interval for details.

exclusive-connection

This element defines whether a new connection is opened for each new channel when a connection is made with this profile. This setting takes one attribute enable, with value yes or no. The default is no, meaning that open connections are reused for new channels requested by a client. See also exclusive-connection.

server-banners

This element defines the server banner setting used with this profile. See server-banners for details.

forwards

This element defines the forwards allowed with this profile. See forwards for details.

tunnels

The tunnels element defines the tunnels that are opened when a connection with this profile is made. The element can contain multiple local-tunnel and remote-tunnel elements.

local-tunnel

This element defines a local tunnel (port forwarding) that is opened automatically when a connection is made with the connection profile. It has five attributes: type, listen-port, listen-address, dst-host, dst-port, and allow-relay.

The type attribute defines the type of the tunnel. This can be tcp (default, no special processing), ftp (temporary forwarding is created for FTP data channels, effectively securing the whole FTP session), or socks (Tectia Client will act as a SOCKS server for other applications, creating forwards as requested by the SOCKS transaction).

The listen-port attribute defines the listener port number on the local client.

The listen-address attribute can be used to define which network interfaces on the client should be listened. Its value can be an IP address belonging to an interface on the local host. Value 0.0.0.0 listens to all interfaces. The default is 127.0.0.1 (localhost loopback address on the client). Setting any other value requires setting allow-relay="yes".

For address-family option inet6, the default listen address is ::1. To listen on all interfaces, specify ::. For address-family option any, the listen address is both 127.0.0.1 and ::1 by default; to listen on all interfaces, specify ::.

Whenever a connection is made to the specified listener, the connection is tunneled over Secure Shell to the remote server and another connection is made from the server to a specified destination host and port (dst-host, dst-port). The connection from the server onwards will not be secure, it is a normal TCP connection.

The dst-host and dst-port attributes define the destination host address and port. The value of dst-host can be either an IP address or a domain name. The default is 127.0.0.1 (localhost = server host).

The allow-relay attribute defines whether connections to the listened port are allowed from outside the client host. The default is no. If you use allow-relay="yes", it will check also the listen-address setting.

For more information on using local tunnels, see Local Tunnels.

remote-tunnel

This element defines a remote tunnel (port forwarding) that is opened automatically when a connection is made with the connection profile. It has four attributes: type, listen-port, listen-address, dst-host, dst-port, and allow-relay.

The type attribute defines the type of the tunnel. This can be either tcp (default, no special processing) or ftp (temporary forwarding is created for FTP data channels, effectively securing the FTP session between the client and server).

The listen-port attribute defines the listener port number on the remote server.

The listen-address attribute can be used to define which network interfaces on the server should be listened. Its value can be an IP address belonging to an interface on the server host. Value 0.0.0.0 listens to all interfaces. The default is 127.0.0.1 (localhost loopback address on the server). Setting any other value requires that allow-relay="yes".

For address-family option inet6, the default listen address is ::1. To listen on all interfaces, specify ::. For address-family option any, the listen address is both 127.0.0.1 and ::1 by default; to listen on all interfaces, specify ::.

Whenever a connection is made to this listener, the connection is tunneled over Secure Shell to the local client and another connection is made from the client to a specified destination host and port (dst-host, dst-port). The connection from the client onwards will not be secure, it is a normal TCP connection.

The dst-host and dst-port attributes define the destination host address and port. The value of dst-host can be either an IP address or a domain name. The default is 127.0.0.1 (localhost = client host).

The allow-relay attribute defines whether connections to the listener port are allowed from outside the server host. The default is no.

For more information on using remote tunnels, see Remote Tunnels.

extended

This element is reserved for future use.

remote-environment

This element defines the remote environment settings used with this profile. Within the remote-environment element, define an environment element for each environment variable to be passed to the server. See remote-environment for details.

server-authentication-methods

This element defines the server authentication methods allowed with this profile. See server-authentication-methods for details.

password

This element can be used to specify a user password that the client will send as a response to password authentication.

The password can be given directly in the string attribute, or a path to a file containing the password can be given in the file attribute, or a path to a program or a script that outputs the password can be given in the command attribute.

When using the command option to refer to a shell script, make sure the script also defines the user's shell, and outputs the actual password. Otherwise the executed program fails, because it does not know what shell to use for the shell script. For example, if the password string is defined in a file named my_password.txt, and you want to use the bash shell, include these lines in the script:

#!/usr/bash
cat /full/pathname/to/my_password.txt
[Caution]Caution

If the password is given using this option, it is extremely important that the ssh-broker-config.xml file, the password file, or the program are not accessible by anyone else than the intended user.

[Note]Note

Any password given with the command-line options will override this setting.

An example connection profile is shown below:

<profile name="rock"
         id="id1"
         host="rock.example.com"
         port="22"
         connect-on-startup="no"
         user="doct">

  <hostkey file="key_22_rock.pub">
  </hostkey>

  <authentication-methods>
    <auth-publickey />
    <auth-password />
  </authentication-methods>

  <server-authentication-methods>
    <auth-server-publickey policy="strict" />
  </server-authentication-methods>

  <server-banners visible="yes" />

  <forwards>
    <forward type="agent" state="on" />
    <forward type="x11" state="on" />
  </forwards>

  <tunnels>
    <local-tunnel type="tcp"
                  listen-port="143"
                  dst-host="imap.example.com"
                  dst-port="143"
                  allow-relay="no" />
  </tunnels>

  <remote-environment>
    <environment name="FOO" value="bar" />
    <environment name="QUX" value="%Ubaz" format="yes" />
    <environment name="ZAPPA" value="%Ubaz" />
  </remote-environment>

</profile>

The static-tunnels Element

The static-tunnels setting is used to configure the behavior of the automatic tunnels. You can create listeners for local tunnels automatically when the Connection Broker starts up. The actual tunnel is formed the first time a connection is made to the listener port. If the connection to the server is not open at that time, it will be opened automatically as well.

The static-tunnels element can contain any number of tunnel elements.

tunnel

The tunnel element specifies a static tunnel. It has the following attributes: type, listen-port, listen-address, dst-host, dst-port, allow-relay, and profile.

The type attribute defines the type of the tunnel. This can be either tcp or ftp.

  • tcp specifies a listener for generic TCP tunneling

  • ftp specifies a listener for FTP tunneling (also the FTP data channels are tunneled)

The listen-port attribute defines the listener port number on the local client.

The listen-address attribute can be used to define which network interfaces on the client should be listened. Its value can be an IP address belonging to an interface on the local host. Value 0.0.0.0 listens to all interfaces. The default is 127.0.0.1 (localhost loopback address on the client). Setting any other value requires that allow-relay="yes".

For address-family option inet6, the default listen address is ::1. To listen on all interfaces, specify ::. For address-family option any, the listen address is both 127.0.0.1 and ::1 by default; to listen on all interfaces, specify ::.

The dst-host and dst-port attributes define the destination host address and port. The value of dst-host can be either an IP address or a domain name. The default is 127.0.0.1 (localhost = server host).

The allow-relay attribute defines whether connections to the listened port are allowed from outside the client host. The default is no.

The profile attribute specifies the connection profile ID that is used for the tunnel.

<static-tunnels>
  <tunnel type="tcp"
          listen-address="127.0.0.1"
          listen-port="9000"
          dst-host="st.example.com"
          dst-port="9000"
          allow-relay="no"
          profile="id1" />
</static-tunnels>

The gui Element

The gui element is used to adjust the Tectia terminal GUI settings. The gui element takes the following attributes: hide-tray-icon, show-exit-button, and show-admin. All of these must have yes or no as the value.

The hide-tray-icon attribute controls whether the Tectia icon is displayed in the notification area of the Windows taskbar (also known as the system tray). The default is no (the tray icon is displayed).

The show-exit-button attribute controls whether the Exit command is displayed in the shortcut menu of the Tectia icon. The default is yes.

The show-admin attribute defines whether the Configuration command is displayed in the Tectia icon shortcut menu. The default is yes. If the button is not displayed, the Tectia Connections Configuration GUI can be started by running ssh-tectia-configuration.exe, located by default in directory "<INSTALLDIR>\SSH Tectia Broker".

<gui hide-tray-icon="no"
     show-exit-button="yes"
     show-admin="yes"

The logging Element

The logging element changes the logging settings that define the log event severities and logging facilities. The element contains one or more log-target and log-events elements.

log-target

This element specifies the log target for auditing. By default, the broker does not log anything. This element can be used to direct log data to a file or syslog.

The log-target element can have file and type as attributes.

The type attribute specifies the logging facility where the audit data is output to. The value can be file, syslog or discard.

The file attribute sets the file system path where the audit data is written to. If the type attribute has syslog or discard set, the file attribute is not allowed.

log-events

This element sets the severity and facility of different logging events. The events have reasonable default values, which are used if no explicit logging settings are made. This setting allows customizing the default values.

The element can also contain one or more log-target elements. When defined here, the log-target element will override the definition given in the logging/log-target.

For the events, facility and severity can be set as attributes. The events itself should be listed inside the log-events element.

The facility can be normal, daemon, user, auth, local0, local1, local2, local3, local4, local5, local6, local7, or discard. Setting the facility to discard causes the server to ignore the specified log events.

On Windows, only the normal and discard facilities are used.

The severity can be informational, notice, warning, error, critical, security-success, or security-failure.

Any events that are not specifically defined in the configuration file will use the default values. The defaults can be overridden for all remaining events by giving an empty log-events element after all other definitions and by setting a severity value for it.

In the names of log events, the characters '*' and '?' can be used as wildcards.

For a complete list of log events, see Appendix E.

An example logging configuration that logs all events, which are programmed to be logged by default, both to /tmp/foo and to syslog.

<logging>
  <log-target file="/tmp/foo" />
  <log-target type="syslog" />
</logging>

An example logging configuration in which events are logged to /tmp/foo, except those whose event name matches "Key_store_*", which will be discarded.

<logging>
  <log-target file="/tmp/foo" />
  <log-events facility="discard">
    Key_store_*
  </log-events>
</logging>